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Fifteen years after the adoption of the Programme of Action at the 1994 International Conference on Populationand Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt, the third five-year review was held of progress in its implementation. Within a 20-year time frame, the Programme of Action addresses a broad range of issues that underpin sustainable development. It defines (and recommends action on) sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, including, among other elements, maternal health, adolescent sexual and reproductive health, and the prevention and treatment ofHIV/AIDS. Gender equality and the empowerment of women are at the centre of the Programme of Action and remain guiding principles throughout the document. Education and the family are also addressed in detail. The ICPD Programme of Action is rooted in respect for human rights and the attendant need to address violence against women and harmful practices. It also includes recommendations on population and the environment, including climate change and migration, and goes beyond usual development discussions by addressing issues of humanitarian assistance. Emphasis is placed on implementation, with recommendations also made on costing and resource mobilization. Technology, research and development are also included. In addition, national action and international cooperation are discussed, as is the importance of partnerships, including with non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

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